Aurubis Operating System

Management system for achieving continuous and sustainable ­process improvement


Blister copper

Unrefined porous copper. During solidification, dissolved gases form small blisters in the copper. Blister copper is also purchased as a raw material


Capital employed

Capital employed is the sum of equity, provisions for pension ­liabilities and financial liabilities, less cash and cash equivalents


The CDP (formerly Carbon Disclosure Project) is a non-profit ­organization with the objective of encouraging companies and towns to publish their environmental data. Once a year, the CDP collects data and information about CO2 emissions, climate risks, as well as reduction targets and strategies from companies on a voluntary basis with the use of questionnaires

Complex materials

Both primary and secondary raw materials are becoming more ­complex, i.e. their copper content is decreasing and their ­con­centration of by-elements and impurities is increasing


Compliance means conforming to certain rules. Apart from laws, directives and other standards, it also refers to corporate guidelines (e.g. codes of conduct)

Continuous cast shapes

Products manufactured from endless strands produced in a ­continuous casting process. Continuous cast shapes are processed into sheet, foil, profiles and tubes by rolling and extrusion

Continuous cast wire rod

Semi-finished product produced in a continuous process and used for the fabrication of copper wire. Standard diameter: 8 mm. Other dimensions are also available

Copper cathodes

Quality product of the copper tankhouse (copper content 99.99 %) and the first marketable product in copper production which can be sold on the metal exchanges

Copper concentrates

A product resulting from the processing (enriching) of copper ores, the Aurubis Group’s main raw material. Since copper is found almost exclusively in ores, in compound form and in low concentrations ­(usually below 1 % copper content), the ores are enriched in processing facilities into concentrates (copper content of 25 to 40 %) after ­production in the mine

Copper premium

Surcharge for high-quality cathodes, which are used for the production of continuous cast wire rod and continuous cast shapes, among others

CSR directive

Corporate Social Responsibility Directive 2014/95/EU on the ­disclosure of non-financial and diversity information



The DAX (an abbreviation of “Deutscher Aktienindex”, or “German Stock Index”) is the main German stock index. It reflects the development of the 30 largest and strongest companies (related to free float market capitalization and order book volume) that are listed in the Prime Standard of the Frankfurt Stock Exchange



EBIT (earnings before interest and taxes) is an indicator of a ­company’s operative earning power, ignoring its capital structure


EBITDA (earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amorti­zation) is an indicator of a company’s operative earning power, ­ignoring its capital structure and propensity to invest


EBT (earnings before taxes) is an indicator of a company’s earning power


Eco-Management and Audit Scheme, also known as the EU eco-audit. EMAS was developed by the European Union and is a joint system comprising environmental management and environmental auditing for organizations that want to improve their environmental ­performance. The EMAS Regulation (Eco-Audit Regulation) gives companies a key role in responsibly handling their direct and indirect environmental impacts


Core project for the optimization of the flat-rolled products segment


Free cash flow

Free cash flow is the generated surplus of cash and cash equivalents, taking into account cash-related changes in working capital, and after deducting capital expenditure. It is available for a company’s ­dividend and interest payments as well as for the redemption of financial liabilities

Future Complex Metallurgy (FCM)

New, innovative metallurgical procedure for the processing of ­complex raw materials



The Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) is a participatory procedure for developing regulations for the sustainability reports of large ­companies, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), governments and NGOs


Iron silicate

A by-product of copper production in the refining process. Formed using sand from iron that is chemically bonded to copper concentrates and recycling raw materials. Mainly used in the construction industry as granules/sand or in lump form



Kayser Recycling System; a modern recycling plant in Lünen for the treatment of a wide range of copper-bearing secondary raw materials



London Metal Exchange: the most important metal exchange in the world, with the highest turnover


Lost time injury frequency rate (accident frequency)



The MDAX (from “mid-cap DAX”) is a German stock index introduced on January 19, 1996. It includes 50 companies – primarily from ­classic industries – that follow the DAX stocks in the ranking of free float market capitalization and stock market turnover. The MDAX thus reflects the price trend of shares in medium-sized companies located or primarily active in Germany (mid-caps)

Metal gain

Metal yield that a smelter can extract beyond the paid metal content in the raw input materials


Net cash flow

Net cash flow is the generated surplus of cash and cash equivalents after taking into account cash-related changes in working capital. It is available for payments in conjunction with a company’s investing and financing activities

Net financial liabilities

Net financial liabilities consist of long and short-term financial ­liabilities less cash and cash equivalents


ONE Aurubis

Transformation program for achieving the Vision 2025



Performance, Responsibility, Integrity, Mutability, Appreciation. The first letters of these values spell the German word “prima”, ­meaning “great”

Primary copper production

Production of copper from copper concentrates


recycling materials

Materials in a closed-loop economy. They arise as residues from ­production processes or during the preparation of end-of-life ­products and rejects


ROCE (return on capital employed) is the ratio of EBIT to capital employed as at the balance sheet date. It describes the efficiency with which capital was utilized during the reporting period


Secondary copper production

Production of copper from recycling materials


Official cash selling rate on the LME. Price basis in annual sales ­agreements

Shape surcharge

Fee for the processing of copper cathodes into copper products

Spot market

Daily business; market for prompt deliveries

Supply Chain Management

SCM is a process-oriented management approach that comprises all of the flows of raw materials, semi-finished products, final products and information along the value and supply chain, from raw material suppliers to final customers, and pursues the objective of resource optimization for all divisions in the company that are part of the ­supply chain



In the tankhouse an electrochemical process, the last refining stage in metal recovery, takes place. For copper, anodes and cathodes are hung in a sulfuric acid solution (electrolyte) and connected to an electric current. Copper and baser elements (e.g. nickel) are then dissolved on the anode in the electrolyte. Copper from the solution is deposited on the cathode with a purity of 99.99 %. Precious metals (e.g. silver and gold) and insoluble components settle as “anode slimes” on the bottom of the tankhouse cell

Treatment and refining charges (TC/RCs), refining charges (RCs)

Surcharges on the purchase price of metals, charged for turning these raw materials into the commodity exchange product – copper cathodes – and other metals